Microelements (micronutrients) are the most important substances on which the vital activity of organisms depends. They are not an energy source, but they are responsible for vital chemical reactions. They are required in very small quantities (the daily rate is measured in milligrams and micrograms, less than 200 mg). If the human body can be thoroughly analyzed, it becomes clear: we are composed of different types of chemical compounds, 30 of which are trace elements.
Silicon is an essential mineral, a structural component of bone and connective tissue. The trace element plays a paramount role in maintaining the flexibility of the musculoskeletal system, increases the elasticity of blood vessels, improves the functional state of the skin, hair, nails, normalizes lipid metabolism, and accelerates the transmission of nerve impulses.
Magnesium is the main structural element of living organisms, an integral component of the bone tissue of animals and people, as well as the green pigment (chlorophyll) of plants. The mineral activates the work of more than 350 enzymes responsible for the absorption of lipids, proteins and nutrients. In the body of an adult with a mass of 70 kilograms, 20-30 grams of magnesium are concentrated: 60% in the bones of the skeleton, 40% in the cells and tissues, 1% in the intercellular space.
Molybdenum is a mineral that is present in the gray matter of the brain, zones of taste, smell, vision, and all tissues, organs of the human body. The name of the element in Greek means "lead." This is due to the fact that molybdenum has been confused with this metal for a long time. The compound is extracted from molybdenite - a mineral that in appearance resembles graphite and has a characteristic lead luster.
When considering a diet in terms of nutrients, rarely does anyone recall cobalt. They rarely talk about this element when it comes to the top list of trace elements important to health. Although in fact this mineral brings a lot of benefits to the body. And learning more about the role of elements such as cobalt (Co), sometimes you have to rethink your idea of proper nutrition and the list of the most important substances for humans.
Zinc is an essential trace element, a structural component of enzymes, proteins, cell receptors, biological membranes, necessary for the complete breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, the formation of genetic material of cells, and the metabolism of nucleic acids. Mention of the mineral was first found in the works of the Swiss alchemist K.
Nickel is a trace element involved in hematopoiesis (erythropoiesis) and redox processes, providing tissue cells with oxygen. The substance was discovered in 1751 and occupies the twenty-eighth place in the periodic system of D.I. Mendeleev under the symbol "Ni". The compound is part of red blood cells, reduces the effects of adrenaline, has a beneficial calming effect on the nervous system.
Calcium is a vital macrocell in the presence of which more than 300 biochemical reactions occur in the human body. The mineral plays a paramount role in building and strengthening bone tissue, participates in the processes of blood coagulation, normalizing myocardial contractility, skeletal muscle, restoring the balance between excitation reactions, inhibition in the brain, and regulating the activity of certain enzymes.
Selenium (translated from Greek means "Moon") is a trace element of youth, activity and productivity, discovered in 1817 by the Swedish mineralogist Jens Jakob Berzelius. Together with tellurium, polonium, oxygen, sulfur, it belongs to chalcogenes. Initially, selenium was considered a poisonous, toxic substance, but after the discovery of its ability to resist cancer, the element won the glory of a miraculous healing agent.
Bromine ("bromos" in Greek means "stench") is a microelement that has a calming effect on the central nervous system by enhancing the process of inhibition. The compound belongs to halogens and is a red-brown liquid with a characteristic unpleasant odor. Bromine was discovered during the study of brines of the Mediterranean salt industry in 1826 by the French chemist A.
Chlorine is the most important macro-element of water-salt metabolism in the human body. In healthy people, the compound is found in almost all cells of the body, however, the highest concentration is concentrated in the skin, intercellular fluid, bone tissue, blood and lymph. In addition to regulating the acid - base balance, chlorine is involved in maintaining the osmotic balance within each cell.
What associations does the word "sulfur" cause? Most have rotten eggs, fire and matches. Meanwhile, this mineral occupies an important place in the human body, although its functions, at first glance, are not as noticeable as other beneficial substances. Sulfur does not shape the body, as does, for example, calcium, which forms bones and teeth.
Potassium (K) is one of those minerals that is present in almost all food products. Vegetables, especially green leafy ones, and bananas are the most famous sources of this macroelement. Lack of potassium affects the work of the heart, causes chronic fatigue. But the most interesting is that this mineral, acting on the cells of the brain, causes a feeling of satisfaction and well-being.
Phosphorus - metalloid, translated from Greek means "luminiferous." In the human body, the compound occupies 1% of body weight and is 85% concentrated in the teeth, bone tissue. The total content of the element in the female body is 400 grams, in the male - 500 - 600. Phosphorus was first obtained in 1669 by the alchemist Hamburg Hennig Brand in the process of evaporation of human urine in order to obtain a philosopher's stone.
Iodine is a “universal” microelement necessary for the full functioning of the thyroid gland, the growth and development of the child’s body, the correct contractility of the heart muscle, and the maintenance of healthy nervous and immune systems. Mineral deficiency in the daily menu causes a hormonal malfunction, which leads to dysfunction of the endocrine glands, including endocrine organs.
How many of us really know the importance of sodium (Na)? What role does this macronutrient play in maintaining our health? Table salt is 40 percent sodium, which, unlike other minerals, has a pronounced pleasant taste. The body needs Na as a substance that regulates water balance and blood pressure.
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common disease caused by a lack of trace elements. Most affected are children and women of childbearing age. This type of anemia develops due to a lack of iron in the diet, after severe blood loss or as a result of a vitamin C deficiency. Meanwhile, do not confuse iron deficiency anemia with megaloblastic anemia caused by insufficient intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid.
Probably few know the chemical element called vanadium, or vanadium (V). But it exists and plays a significant role for humans. It belongs to trace elements that perform a number of significant functions. In particular, it promotes proper metabolism, the formation and growth of healthy bones and teeth, increases protective abilities, cleanses the blood and even slows down aging (in combination with other minerals).
Macronutrients are substances useful to the body, the daily norm of which for humans is from 200 mg. Deficiency of macronutrients leads to metabolic disorders, dysfunction of most organs and systems. There is a saying: we are what we eat. But, of course, if you ask friends when they last ate, for example, sulfur or chlorine, surprise in return cannot be avoided.
Boron is an essential or vital trace element for the human body, which occupies fifth place in the periodic system of D.I. Mendeleev. The compound is involved in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, supports bones in a healthy state, strengthens muscles, improves vitality, prevents postmenopausal osteoporosis, improves brain function.
Fluorine (F) is widely known in the forms of calcium fluoride, tin fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate, sodium fluoride. Belongs to the number of the most active elements of the halogen group, which also includes bromine, chlorine and iodine. It does not occur in nature as a simple substance, and a liter of natural water contains from 3 to 12 mg of fluoride.