Mushrooms

Oyster mushrooms

The gastronomic and medicinal benefits of oyster mushrooms have been known to mankind for thousands of years. In Chinese medicine, these mushrooms have been used for almost 30 centuries to strengthen immunity. Useful properties they resemble porcini mushrooms, and in terms of vitamin content is not inferior to many vegetables and meat.

General characteristics

This unusual mushroom has several names: pleurotus, Pleurotus Ostreatus, flat mushroom (in Japanese) or the more familiar - oyster mushroom. By the way, the Latin name of this mushroom is translated as "ear", which recalls the specific shape of the mushroom. English-speaking nationalities call it "oyster mushroom", as it is close in shape to an open oyster. If we talk about the Slavic name, there is an assumption that it comes from the word "hang", because these mushrooms are "hanged" on tree trunks.

"Wild" oyster mushrooms are not particularly whimsical mushrooms. They grow well in subtropical and temperate climates. They are more often found on decaying logs, from which they “feed” on lignin and cellulose, or on trunks of living deciduous trees. In captivity, oyster mushrooms are grown on a mixture of sawdust, sunflower husk or straw. Industrial "breeding" of these mushrooms is popular because of the ease of care and high productivity (per year, 1 square meter of "planting" can produce about 300 kg of mushrooms).

Pleurotus Ostreatus is “carnivorous” because, in addition to juices of wood, it uses nematode worms as food. By the way, there is an opinion that the nitrogen in these mushrooms is from nematodes. Thus, oyster mushrooms serve as a natural remedy against parasites.

There are several types of oyster mushrooms, which differ from each other in appearance and taste.

Oyster mushroom oak

Despite the name, it grows not only on oaks. Hats - from grayish to brown, thick with a pleasant mushroom aroma. Leg is yellowish, fibrous, about 2-5 cm in length. Fruits in July-September. Some consider this type of mushroom to be inedible. Officially belongs to the group of conditionally edible.

Royal oyster mushroom

Other names - steppe, white steppe mushroom or eringi. As the "soil" uses the roots and stems of umbrella plants. Pale yellow, hat diameter up to 25 cm. Reminds mushrooms or breasts. Belongs to edible mushrooms. It serves as an excellent source of protein (contains up to 40% of the total composition). The chemical composition resembles dairy products and meat. Effectively reduces cholesterol, has anti-cancer, immunostimulating properties. It contains all B-group vitamins, as well as most of the minerals and amino acids necessary for humans.

"Found" on pastures, starting in March. Fruits twice a year - in spring and autumn. Most often found in Central Asia, the Lower Volga region, Transcaucasia, is in the USA, Japan, Australia, South Africa.

Beneficial features:

  • removes salts of heavy metals from the body;
  • boosts immunity;
  • prevents atherosclerosis;
  • regulates sugar level;
  • reduces the risk of malignant tumors;
  • beneficial effect on the health of the eyes, kidneys, liver;
  • increases hemoglobin;
  • antibacterial agent;
  • natural power engineer.

Pulmonary oyster mushroom

Other names - beech, whitish, spring. Light gray mushroom with a hat diameter of up to 15 cm. Usually, several mushrooms grow together with legs. The appearance resembles oyster oyster mushrooms. The flesh has a faint but pleasant smell. It grows, as a rule, in the warm season (May-October) on dead wood (rarely on living trees). Distributed in latitudes with a temperate climate. Cultivated in North America, New Zealand and Europe. Belongs to the edible group. Use in fresh, dried or pickled form (mainly hats).

Beneficial features:

  • source of antioxidants and vitamins;
  • lowers glucose levels in diabetics.

Autumn oyster mushroom

Other names - alder, late, green, willow, willow, late panellus. It is easy to recognize by a dark (from greenish brown to brown-purple) hat up to 5 cm in size. The flesh is yellowish, without a pronounced odor. Grows in groups (one above the other) on the stumps of deciduous trees (aspen, linden, elm, poplar). Old mushrooms are tough with thick skin. After the first frosts it loses taste, but still remains edible. For industrial purposes, grown in the Netherlands, Germany, France, Japan. On the territory of Russia grows in mixed and deciduous forests.

Beneficial features:

  • antitumor agent;
  • antioxidant;
  • strengthens the immune system;
  • regulates sugar in diabetics.

Clove-shaped oyster mushroom

Another name is plentiful. Creamy leaf-shaped hats with tucked edges reach 10 cm. The pulp is almost white, fleshy, in old mushrooms - hard with fibers. Legs reach 8 cm. Fruits in May-September on the wood of deciduous trees. Prefers bushes, places of windbreak. Some measure resembles pulmonary oyster mushroom. Belongs to edible mushrooms. Gourmets note its excellent taste, but they recommend using only hats, the flesh of which is more tender.

Beneficial features:

  • antioxidant;
  • activates the production of insulin.

Lemon oyster mushroom

Other name - yellow, golden, ilmak. It resembles chanterelles in shape, the diameter of hats can reach 10 cm. Old mushrooms fade. They grow best on stumps and dry broad-leaved species, less often - on the trunks of coniferous or living trees. Natural area - Eastern Siberia (northern part), Primorsky Territory. Fruits from July to October, and the peak yield occurs during the rainy season. Most actively cultivated in China. Only hats in fresh, pickled or dried form are eaten. It is used in Korean and Chinese medicine.

It has many healing properties:

  • lowers blood sugar;
  • has fat burning abilities;
  • anti-tumor agent;
  • strengthens the immune system;
  • increases potency;
  • treats dysentery.

Oyster oyster mushroom

Other names - common, oyster mushroom, groundworm. The most popular type of mushroom. This light ash mushroom belongs to the most unpretentious. The diameter of the hat reaches 25 cm. The pulp is dense with a weak, but pleasant mushroom aroma. Grows in large "nests". Fruits best on weakened trees or dead stumps of hardwood. Peak "productivity" - in September and October. Belongs to edible mushrooms. Young oyster mushrooms are soft and tender, older ones lose their taste, become stiff. This type is considered the most useful. Combines the healing properties of other species.

Interesting Facts

Even despite the fact that oyster mushrooms are extremely common and unpretentious mushrooms, for a long time their area of ​​use was limited to China. The scientific world first became interested in these strange mushrooms only in the 18th century. And the first mass use of oyster mushrooms in Europe occurred in Germany during the First World War.

A little later, Europe learned about the antibiotic properties of the fungus.

And in New Zealand, the cultivation of oyster oyster mushrooms is prohibited by law. It is also forbidden to import this type of mushroom. In this way, authorities protect the local flora from the potentially harmful effects of parasitic fungi.

Meanwhile, pulmonary oyster in local culinary specialists is held in high esteem. True, some incorrectly call it oyster.

The nutritional value

Oyster mushrooms are an incomparable source of protein and B vitamins. By the concentration of niacin (vitamin B3), these mushrooms are the leader among all food products: 100 g contains at least 500 percent of the recommended daily intake. And as a source of iron, these mushrooms are much better than red meat or poultry. In addition, oyster mushrooms provide the body with vitamin D, which is indispensable for healthy bone tissue.

Nutritional properties (per 100 g of fresh mushrooms)
Calorie content33 kcal
Squirrels33 g
Fats0.4 mg
Carbohydrates6,4
Copper0.4 mg
Iron2 mg
Magnesium25 mg
Manganese0.2 mg
Phosphorus175 mg
Potassium620 mg
Selenium3.5 mcg
Zinc1 mg
Folic acid40 mcg
Niacin7 mg
Riboflavin0.5 mg
Thiamine0.2 mg
Pyridoxine0.1 mg

Beneficial features

Oyster mushrooms are one of the most commonly used ingredients in Asian cuisine. Among the many mushrooms used by the Chinese, oyster mushrooms occupy a special place of honor on the dining table. Not least, due to its high nutritional value. In eastern countries, a popular dish of oyster mushrooms, fried in olive oil with garlic.

Antioxidant

Studies have shown that oyster mushrooms have significant antioxidant properties. They include ergotionine, a unique antioxidant produced exclusively by mushrooms. Approximately 100 g of product are capable of providing almost 13 mg of ergotionine. However, after heat treatment, the amount of nutrient is reduced.

Antibacterial effect

The antibacterial activity of oyster mushrooms was first proven back in 1950. Studies have shown that this effect is achieved due to benzaldehyde, which is part of the mushrooms.

The presence of this substance in mushrooms is indicated by the specific smell of anise. It is known that an antibiotic obtained from a fungus kills Salmonella bacteria, and also weakens the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Cholesterol

Oyster mushrooms are ideal for people with high cholesterol, suffering from diabetes, obesity or hypertension. First of all, because they contain a small amount of sodium and very little starch. It is also known that the chemical composition of mushrooms includes statins and lovastatins - substances that reduce the concentration of "bad" cholesterol triglycerides.

Crayfish

Studies have shown that pink oyster mushroom extract has anti-cancer capabilities, and royal oyster mushroom is able to stimulate the immune system. In this regard, it is customary to talk about the double anti-cancer effects of oyster mushrooms. On the one hand, they inhibit the growth of malignant tumors in the tissues of the mammary glands or colon. On the other hand, by activating immune cells, they help the body resist oncological processes. For this reason, oriental medicine often uses oyster mushrooms as an anti-cancer agent.

Hepatitis

In the human body, the liver has an important detoxification function. But after serious poisoning, prolonged medication, the liver also needs to be cleansed. It is known that the substances that make up the oyster mushroom have a beneficial effect on the state of this organ. They improve liver health in people after alcohol or tobacco abuse, and also serve as a prophylactic against hepatitis C.

Anemia

If the body regularly lacks iron or folic acid, anemia develops. Ordinary oyster mushrooms will help prevent the disease or alleviate its severity. In the composition of these fungi, both of these substances are contained in abundance.

The cardiovascular system

In most cases, cardiovascular disease results from a violation of the stability of blood pressure. Another useful property of oyster mushroom is the ability of these fungi to control blood pressure. A similar effect is achieved due to potassium, which is part of the product. Other beneficial components have a firming effect on the heart muscle, reduce the risk of coronary disease and atherosclerosis (due to lower cholesterol).

Digestion

One of the causes of constipation is called insufficient fiber intake.

Oyster mushrooms will help to solve this problem. One large mushroom can give the body up to 14% of the daily fiber requirement. But the beneficial effect on the digestive system is not limited to this. Oyster mushrooms, getting into the human body, activate the production of alkali. And such an effect from mushrooms is extremely useful for people with high acidity of the stomach. Another function of oyster mushrooms is to activate the production of enzymes, on which the quality of food processing also depends.

Antiparasitis

Nematodes live not only on tree trunks. Sometimes these parasites make their way into human organisms. As a rule, they "occupy" the intestines. And one of the easiest ways to get rid of parasites is oyster mushrooms.

Oyster oyster mushrooms in folk medicine

Depressant

Grind about 50 g of oyster mushroom and pour a bottle of cahors. Insist in a cold place for 7 days. Take 30 ml at bedtime.

Thrombophlebitis and Atherosclerosis Prevention

Process fresh mushrooms with boiling water and cut very finely (to the consistency of the paste). Take a tablespoon 3 times a day for 14 days. Repeat after 2 months.

The cure for hypertension

Shredded oyster mushrooms (about a quarter cup) pour a glass of vodka. For 14 days, insist in a dark, cool place (shake daily). Take a teaspoon before meals. The course of treatment is 2 weeks.

Side effects

Although oyster mushrooms are generally considered a safe product, they can sometimes cause allergic reactions. Mushroom abuse, on the other hand, can lead to indigestion.

Like other mushrooms, oyster mushrooms very easily absorb carcinogens from the air and soil. Therefore, it is important to know in which area the mushrooms grew. Otherwise, instead of useful components, they will “enrich” with heavy metals and toxic substances. This product is especially dangerous for pregnant women, children, the elderly and sick people.

Cooking Application

This mushroom is often found in Chinese, Korean and Japanese menus. These mushrooms are also popular in India. They are added to soups, served with soy sauce as an independent dish. But for cooking, mainly young mushrooms are used, since older ones become stiff, and their taste and smell deteriorate. In the food industry, they are often used not "wild", but specially grown oyster mushrooms.

Oyster mushrooms belong to mushrooms revered throughout the world. This is one of the most common and unpretentious mushrooms. But such "illegibility" oyster mushroom in no way impairs their taste and does not reduce the healing properties.

Watch the video: Oyster Mushroom Hunting Identification Cooking How to find Aspen Oysters Pleurotus Populinus (January 2020).

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