Cheese always requires the preliminary production of dense particles resembling flakes. They are obtained from the milk when the raw material passes through the stage of maturation. This explains the technological need to first separate the solid fraction from the whey in order to obtain the desired raw material.
In the professional terminology of cheese making, this process is called coagulation. Depending on what influenced the acceleration of the procedure, there are two types of product. The first is a fermented milk category, where special microorganisms take the first place. In the second case, rennet is the main actor.
To quickly separate the protein components from the main dairy liquid, experts use a special enzyme. From a chemical point of view, this is a complex compound of organic type, which provides two components: pepsin and chymosin.
Both components help to obtain high-quality solid goodies, as they are considered a natural catalyst for pasting. And if initially only private cheese factories or people who prefer to cook everything at home used this method, now the plants are interested in this method. With its help it is possible to reduce time costs, which has a beneficial effect on financial costs. At the same time, the finished product fully complies with the requirements that GOST insists on fulfilling. All organoleptic properties remain unchanged, which ensures the preservation of taste and aroma characteristics. Non-professionals will not be able to distinguish between two different versions of the cheese product, saying exactly which of them succumbed to the rennet.
After an unusual sourdough falls into the prepared cake mix, it forms a tight clot that needs to be detailed. So it turns out to separate the whey, in which, with uniform mixing, there will be cheese grains. If you leave the technical conditions at this level, then instead of cheese is created cottage cheese.
Specialists in sour-milk factories have long guessed this feature and now use it to get curd mass without significant time and cost. And consumers are not even aware of this.
After the grain reaches the desired level of moisture, experts begin to give the mass a characteristic shape. For this, the workpiece is transferred into a mold with holes for free flow of whey. Then the semi-solid concentrate is pressed and salted.
Salting time varies from case to case, but usually never exceeds ten days. After the completion of the stage, the resulting bars are sent to the repository so that the delicacy is ripe there. It will take about three weeks.
But if we are talking about elite varieties, which are created according to special recipes of private eminent cheese-makers, then one head can be kept for several years on aging. After the desired condition has been achieved, the head is sealed and sent for subsequent implementation.
Having become interested in an unusual method of cheese-making, many amateurs begin to look for where to get a miracle assistant and are surprised at its rather high cost. But due to the fact that there is a minimum expense, the consumer still benefits. You can buy the ingredient in a pharmacy or in specialized stores.
History of origin
Historians have not yet found any accurate information about where the tradition to receive the rennet product came from. But legends about this abound.
The original component is isolated from the stomachs of newborn calves. Moreover, these should be animals that have not yet reached a certain age and have consumed only mother's milk before the moment of receiving the enzyme.
Far from all farmers are ready to destroy domestic stocks of livestock for the sake of obtaining the precious component. And the defenders of animals are not asleep, believing that this is not the most humane reason for killing calves.
So what is it and why is it possible to get the natural enzyme only in this way? Rennet is inherent only in young cattle, which is released in the stomach of babies, so that they can better digest the milk coming from the mother. This explains why the liquid is so easily divided into two main fractions in a matter of minutes.
The original recipe for exquisite cheeses of this type involved the use of only an enzyme of natural origin. But with the development of the food industry, people were able to find more humane approaches to getting soft delicacies. Most often for identical purposes choose pepsin, which is responsible for the coagulation of milk.
Sometimes the technology involves the addition of microbial aspartylproteinases and chymosin, which are released through the passage of the fermentation phase. All this is readily used by many European plants, which support the idea of abandoning the old method, which is far from the notion of humane.
In very rare cases, some manufacturers resort to vegetable substitutes, which are:
- fig juice;
- starter grass.
These techniques are supported by vegetarian movements. At the same time, the aces warn that if the consumer wants to purchase a ready-made product, the label “Organic composition” or “Natural components” will not save him from eating particles of rennet. In fact, it is also a natural component, so marketers do not seem to be deceiving a potential client.
To recognize the catch, you must carefully read the full composition. Since today the range of this dairy products is quite wide, it will turn out to find a suitable option quite simply. To help in this, chemists have made a kind of summary with hints, which deciphers the incomprehensible ingredients indicated on the label:
- Renin and animal chymosin indicate the very classic enzyme.
- Another natural filler.
- Stabo-1290. Element of animal origin.
- Abomin. The same enzyme that is easy to find in the pharmacy. It is actively used by people who know how to make cheese at home with a minimum of tools.
Also, experts advise to carefully read the label, where there is a mention like "Sweet milk cheese." This indicates that the product includes the veal secret.
Separately, there is a classification for coagulators of identical properties, which are of non-animal origin. The most common substitute is pure chymosin, which is labeled as "100% chymosin." This indicates that in the laboratory it was extracted in the process of fermentation of special moldy fungi. Most often it is:
- Mukor Miehei;
- Rhizomucor pusillus;
- Mucor pusillus.
If the instruction provides for the mention of proteinase, then Cryphonectria parasitica has been here. Its particles are suitable for a narrow list of cheese mass, which received a higher temperature for the second heating. A vivid example of this is the Swiss varieties.
Before looking for how to prepare the cheese you like at the initial tasting, you need to decide which category it belongs to. This will make it possible to understand what makes them different and which option to give preference based on the available skills.
Most often, cooking in a plant provides for hard varieties. At home, creating them manually is quite problematic, at least later, that the shutter speed stretches for about six months, or even more. Not all amateurs are able to provide good taste with suitable aging conditions. Separately, you need to take care that the pressure load on the head is really large. The result will be the following delicacies known to all gourmets:
It is a bit simpler with semi-solid solutions, because it takes only a couple of months for their final maturation. Their distinguishing feature is the presence of ocelli - firm holes in a dense mass. Depending on the specific type, the format and size of the eyes will differ significantly. The most famous representatives of the camp are Emmental and Maasdam.
For home cooking, preference is usually given to mild variations, repeating the original recipe of which is quite easy. And each hostess independently decides what flavor to give her a masterpiece. Also, the chef will be able to decide: if the resulting dish immediately, or postpone for aging in a couple of days. The most common representatives of the group are called Adyghe cheese and Roquefort.
Another popular solution for copying is pickle solutions, which include:
They are distinguished by the addition of a new item to the technology, which implies the need to be salted for several days. This ensures a proper finish, as well as a fragile and layered structure. Such goat cheese can often be found among the stocks of enterprising rural residents of most countries formerly part of the Soviet Union.
But the processed delicacies repeat without the appropriate equipment is more difficult. Here you have to juggle not only cheese combinations, but also dosages:
It is difficult to do everything without any experience, which please the family with a pleasant consistency of the resulting product.
Even more difficult to repeat the originals with mold. In some cases, amateur experiments may even prove dangerous. To create them, only special food mold is attracted, which in minimal quantities has a positive effect on digestive processes. Only now, pregnant women and mothers during lactation of such delicacies should be avoided.
Each nation has its own signature recipe of cheese, whether it is a classic Russian or spicy Italian. The inhabitants of Cyprus, he passes under the name Halloumi and provides for belonging just to rennet solutions.
To prepare it you will need to strictly follow the established proportions:
- 5 liters of milk;
- 1 g of calcium chloride;
- 0.5 g rennet;
- a teaspoon of salt;
- tablespoon dried mint.
First, the milk is heated to a temperature of 32 degrees. If the milk turned out to be pasteurized, then calcium chloride is pre-added there, and then the enzyme. After that, the workpiece is left for 45 minutes to form a clot.
To control the test is made for a clean break. If the desired consistency is not achieved, the lump is left for another 15 minutes, after which the mixture is cut into equal cubes of 1.5 cm and left for 10 minutes.
The clot again sends to the fire, where in slow mode it heats up in 15 minutes to 38 degrees. First, you need to stir very carefully, and then more intensely. Once the desired temperature is reached, it will take another 20 minutes to stir the semi-finished product. Next, the mass is left for another 20 minutes, mixing at intervals of 5 minutes.
At the stage of removal of serum is not necessary to pour it into the sink, as it is still useful. The masses are laid in a mold with holes and pressed with a hand to start the process of self-pressing.
After 15 minutes, the cheese is turned over, leaving it in that position for another 15 minutes. While this is happening, you should have time to heat the serum to 95 degrees and put the preform in the hot liquid so that it does not touch the day.
Now have to wait until the clot pops up. 40 minutes is usually enough. After that, the cheese is dipped in cold water for a couple of seconds, and then immediately put on the board and flatten.
It remains only to rub with salt goodies and sprinkle with mint from the inside. The inhabitants of Cyprus put the crescent-shaped cheese at this stage, but this is not an absolutely necessary item. You can simply roll the bar, then hold the treat for three days in the refrigerator for better impregnation. Halloumi should be eaten after roasting on a grill or dry skillet.