The method of diagnosing the human internal organs, called endoscopy, involves the use of specialized equipment in the form of a tube and a camera without the use of surgical intervention. An endoscopist is a specialist who does not independently prescribe treatment to patients, but only diagnoses and prescribes other specialized doctors. This specialist has a higher medical education, an obligatory qualification characteristic of an endoscopist and is fully proficient in computer technology, with which he must, in the context of his work, carry out examinations. With a flexible long tube with a lens - an endoscope - the doctor examines the internal organs of the patient, the data about which are displayed on a computer monitor and saved to disk. Endoscopy helps to recognize the development of various pathologies in the early stages, which speeds up recovery and reduces the likelihood of complications.
Competence of the specialist
The work of an endoscopist involves the physical visualization of the cavities and channels of the human body with optical devices with lighting devices. With the help of the endoscope, it became possible to diagnose and treat tuberculosis, cancer of the stomach and lungs, and infertility in women. A good endoscopist does not conduct self-treatment, but deals with direct diagnostics, the results of which are needed by other specialists, who send their patients to the endoscopist to clarify all the details of the disease. Diagnostics by the endoscope distinguishes color changes in case of lesions of the mucous membranes, peptic ulcer diseases, erosions, scars and all kinds of tumors, reveals the sources of bleeding.
As a therapeutic method, an endoscope is used to inject drugs into the immediate area of the disease, enter surgical instruments for various manipulation procedures (laser therapy, removal of polyps), monitor and monitor the progress of the manipulations. Photographs of the pathologies provided by the endoscope help the endoscopist to track the dynamics of changes during repeated procedures, thus figuring out the effectiveness of the chosen treatment method. Also, with the help of an endoscope, a tissue biopsy is performed, which is necessary for histological or histochemical studies of various organs. The material obtained in this way with an endoscope is transferred to special laboratories, where further research is carried out, after which it becomes possible to make an accurate diagnosis and select a treatment method.
Reasons for contacting the endoscopist: diseases and affected organs
The referral to the endoscopist is always given by the doctor to whom the patient turns with specific complaints and symptoms. Among the diseases that the endoscopist helps to establish and cure are:
- peptic ulcer or duodenal ulcer;
- gastrojejunal ulcer;
- varicose veins and esophagus diverticula, Mallory-Weiss syndrome;
- malignant and benign tumors of the esophagus (including cancer);
- duodenitis, papillitis, benign tumors of the major duodenal papilla;
- peptic ulcer or cicatricial deformity of the duodenal bulb;
- colon cancer;
- colon polypectomy.
Thus, the scope of endoscopic research includes the bronchi, duodenum, large and small intestines, esophagus, trachea, and stomach. In this case, the attending physician for stomach ulcers, for example, should alert and force the following complaints and symptoms of the patient to refer to the endoscopist:
- sharp cutting pains in the upper abdomen in the first stage of the disease, with prevailing skin pallor, cold sweat, slowing pulse and tension;
- in the second stage, tension and pain should subside, but they are replaced by the emerging symptoms of peritonitis, such as increasing temperature, increased heart rate, delayed stool, dry skin and tongue;
- at the third stage of the gastric ulcer the general condition of the patient is very sharply worsened, the severity of peritonitis increases, which requires urgent and urgent hospitalization of the patient.
The endoscopist to clarify the diagnosis can produce such diagnostic procedures as:
- bronchoscopy, gastroscopy, otoscopy;
- sigmoidoscopy, angioscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy;
- endoscopic examination of the joints and ventricles of the brain, as well as the uterine cavity;
- cystoscopy, calposcopy, examination of the urethra;
- endoscopy of the cavities of the chambers of the human heart;
- diagnostic laparoscopy;
- endoscopy and treatment of the bile ducts.
It is important to note that the endoscopist, according to patients, in the course of their work does not cause any unpleasant or painful sensations to a person. Cases of painful endoscopy can be observed only in very rare cases with an atypical structure of mucous membranes or their location, since this tissue of the body does not have nerve endings.
Since patients go to a doctor-endoscopist in the direction of other specialists, to whom they have addressed specific complaints, there is no way for a specific regimen to be taken by this specialized doctor - everything depends on the disease that needs to be diagnosed. In general, it is important to remember that any endoscopic examination should be performed on an empty stomach, which is why it is better to come to the reception in the morning, most often not only with an empty stomach, but also the intestine. In the presence of all sorts of chronic diseases or diseases that are not recorded in the outpatient card, the patient is obliged to warn the endoscopist about them. Women before admission should remove a different decoration of metals, because they can interfere with the diagnosis. You should not drink alcohol, smoke, eat fatty or heavy food for 24 hours before the intended endoscopy. Before endoscopy, specialists often give their patients sedatives to relax the body. It is important to take into account those people who come to the hospital on their own transport, since after the procedure drowsiness may occur and it will be better to refuse to drive a car. After endoscopy, the doctor may recommend that the patient not eat for some time.
As mentioned above, endoscopy is painless for a person, but minor bleeding is possible with a biopsy. At the end of the procedure, a sore throat can be observed, as the tube of the endoscope can scratch the surface of the tissue. In any case, in the event of any irregularities in the patient's well-being after endoscopy, it is necessary to inform the physician about this without fail.
Before endoscopy, the specialist may require the results of the following patient tests:
- complete blood count, blood tests to determine the Rh factor and human blood group;
- urinalysis, as well as stool analysis to determine the content of hidden blood;
- serum iron analysis;
- blood test for sugar;
- reticulocyte analysis;
- histological or cytological biopsy studies;
- CLO test.
The results of endoscopy are transmitted to the mainstream attending physician, or to the patient personally, in the form of photographs or on digital media.
Specialist recommendations to patients
An endoscopist together with a gastroenterologist will definitely give advice on how to behave to the patients who applied for various diseases. Special recommendations require diagnosed gastric ulcer, since this disease is treated not so much with drugs as with the correct lifestyle and diet. The results of the improvements in the treatment of ulcers can be observed by the endoscopist at each subsequent examination, if the patient observes all the manipulations prescribed to him.
To date, when identifying gastric ulcers, patients are prescribed a specialized diet, which combines all the positive aspects of the previous diets for ulcers. Clinicians with the help of this diet help the patient's body to recover without testing additional loads, and the body to improve its protective functions.
During the period of acute ulcers, the overall favorable emotional background is very important, as the peptic ulcer can worsen greatly on the basis of nerves. Eating can occur only in the absence of annoying factors, with maximum comfort. It is necessary to slowly, without being distracted, without abrupt swallowing of food. The gastric mucosa must be spared from mechanical, chemical or thermal damage.
To exclude mechanical damage to the gastric mucosa, endoscopists and gastroenterologists recommend excluding from the diet coarse foods rich in fiber - turnips, beans, radishes, unpeeled or unripe vegetables and fruits, black bread, stringy meat, poultry skin. In order to avoid mechanical damage, food for a patient with an ulcer is wiped.
Chemical damage to the stomach ulcer can cause those foods that cause secretion, such as meat broths and fried foods. Thermal damage can be caused by food that is very cold or very hot, so it cannot be eaten too.
Comprehensive treatment of peptic ulcer disease requires compliance with dietary patterns, since it is rational breaks between meals that help the tissues recover. Long intervals are transferred by patients very hard, they can cause bouts of acute ulcers. That is why it is necessary to eat food at a peptic ulcer at least once every 3-4 hours. Even at night, experts recommend that patients drink a glass of milk, because at night the ulcerative symptoms often worsen, and pain begins.
An endoscopist is not an independent doctor, his diagnosis helps specialists from different fields of medicine to give the patient the correct diagnosis and prescribe a high-quality, appropriate to his condition, therapy, as well as to identify the dynamics of changes in the course of the disease when using this or that treatment. However, this does not mean that endoscopy can be dispensed with when making a diagnosis. Only thanks to a good endoscopist, serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cancer and many others can be detected at an early stage and cured a person in a short time.